Flu Virus Research

The critical part in the research is to understand how influenza virus spread and mutate and is the key to preventing pandemics by discovering preventive, diagnostic and treatment methods.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), influenza viruses that occur in animals can infect humans, and later develop to pandemic strains. Several research areas have been outlined by the WHO relating to the animal/human influenza interface that could have a profound impact on protecting human being.

The Working Group of WHO on Influenza Research at the Animal/Human Interface was setup in 2005 to encourage basic studies into animal influenza viruses, with the aim to find out the cause the viruses can infect people.


Studies are on-going on avian influenza viruses, particularly H5N1. Researchers aim to discover the prevalence of avian influenza viruses in domestic animals and birds, understand the molecular basis of   transmission  of viruses from animals to people, assess the role of migratory birds in the  transmission  of the viruses, and evaluate the human immune response to infection with avian influenza viruses.

Studies are also being done on H1N1, a novel strain which is the causative factor of the current influenza A pandemic and researchers succeeded developed a vaccine which approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.


The scientists from the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) play an important role and work in collaboration with medical research institutions worldwide to find better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat seasonal and pandemic influenzas, including influenza A (H1N1).

The trial is being conducted through the NIAID-funded national network of Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs). Safety data will be collected and assessed continuously throughout the trial by an independent safety monitoring committee and investigators.


Other than vaccine research, NIAID scientists are also investigating the basic biology of influenza. The data collected will assist in designing diagnostics that are more accurate and faster, cost-effective and portable. NIAID is also investigating host immune responses to the virus in animal models and people, and studying influenza epidemiology.

For treatment, NIAID supports research being conducted to develop new and effective drug combinations and examine the mechanisms behind emerging drug resistance. This effort is supported by innovative new technologies to design drugs that target specific cellular processes and viral proteins.

Auto Mechanics Curriculum – Preparing for the Job of the Future

While taking driver’s education class in high school, for part of the curriculum, a man insisted his daughter take a basic auto mechanics class. They fought for weeks about this class. It was unnecessary. It was ridiculous. After all, she was a girl. After much verbal sparring, she took the class and enjoyed it, using her knowledge many times.

Years later, it became clear why the man wanted his daughter to take this class. Someday, her car would break down. The auto club would not always be able to come to her aid. Roadside assistance is not always available. Especially when the breakdown occurs in the middle of the desert. A person could wait hours for help. That could be dangerous. It was important to know how to fix the basics on her own.

When she became a parent, and her teenage daughter was ready to learn to drive, it was their turn to fight about taking the class. The mother insisted and her daughter relented. As it turns out, after much arguing, the student really enjoyed it. Since she did not have a “head” for business, or fashion, or mathematics, or English, or any other subject for that matter, it seems the one thing she excelled at was fixing cars.

After taking all of the basic classes the school had to offer, the student’s instructor suggested a transfer to the local high school that offered full vocational technical programs. The transfer took place, and for the next two years she took a number of classes like basic tune-ups and trouble-shooting, tire rotation and balancing, transmission repair, engine repair, fluid transfers for oil changes and transmission fluid, and air conditioning, among others. Upon graduation from high school, the student became a licensed auto mechanic.

For this young lady, that was not enough. She wanted to specialize in foreign cars. That required a whole new set of classes. Thus began her enrollment in the local college vo-tech. Another two years and she earned her A.S. Degree in Auto Mechanics. She was able to fix anything on wheels. However, as with any industry, evolution takes place. The new hybrid vehicles are already on the market, and the electric car is just around the corner. She continues with her education to maintain the high level of expertise necessary for the cars of the future.

Auto mechanic classes can help a student with their future. To become a mechanic, one must learn problem-solving skills. Mechanics is a process. So is life. One cannot put gas in a car that has no engine. Such is the same with life. One step at a time.

For students that struggle in school, vo-tech classes and auto mechanic classes have historically been extremely challenging. Their opportunities for success were once unlike the mother and daughter that both took auto mechanics classes and flourished.

Video Conferences

Videoconferences are groupware technologies that enable people in two or more locations to interact simultaneously by merging video, voice call, file sharing, instant messaging, and internet co-browsing across both Windows & Mac operating systems. Thanks to advancements high speed web connectivity, videoconferences are now more widely available at a lower cost. New, cheaper technologies such as the webcam, software compression and affordable broadband connections allow even personal users – not just business users – to enjoy video conferencing.

More importantly, video conferences have become extremely helpful in the field of medicine. It is now being applied to telemedicine – it is used to help diagnose patients remotely, conduct remote consultation, and transmit medical images and other pressing data all in real time.

Peripheral applications such as microscopes with built-in digital cameras, ultrasound tools, “videoendoscopes,” and many other related technologies can be connected to videoconferencing technology to transmit patient data. Stay-at-home patients can easily access nurses and physicians especially during medical emergency. Videoconferences also allow medical professionals to discuss cases and consult each other across large distances. Best of all, videoconferences allow patients in remote rural areas to get modern diagnosis without leaving their localities.

Videoconferences are now also widely available in schools and other educational institutions. Students, teachers and lecturers from the world over can hold classes together and even transmit these classes to isolated locations. Videoconferences have also lowered the costs of education, because students gain access to classes that their schools cannot afford to offer within their own vicinity for a lower cost.

Foreign language classes, for example, can be conducted from a remote university and transmitted to a recipient school. In some cases, videoconferences can replace field trips – economically disadvantaged students who cannot go personally to zoos, museums or to trips to other countries can immerse themselves in the same experience through the technology.

The History of the Honda CD185 Motorcycle

The vintage Honda CD185 was first manufactured in 1978. Very few of these models were produced which makes finding parts a little difficult, but it is possible.

The stock engine was an air cooled 4 stroke SOHC twin which helped in both speed a mileage. The Honda CD185 comes packed with power, especially as a collectors item. The style of this bike is a roadster for both its ease of transportation and its high range of speed.

The transmission offers a 16 count front sprocket and a 36 count rear sprocket with a 112 count chain link. When you start your CD185 for the first time you will feel the 4 speed constant mesh every time you pull the throttle. This was a highly sophisticated machine for its time and it still has high value in performance.

The petrol capacity is 10.5 liters that will bring hours of riding before the next pit stop. This may be smaller than many current models but it still holds itself with the mileage the bike can get when maintained at 60mph on the motorway. When you have a choice to pick this motorcycle over others be sure to remember that this bike is a vintage and not to many were produced during its run.

When it comes to breaks there is both front and rear drums. The electric that will run through the motorcycle as you turn the key is 6 volts which is just enough to make your next ride a care free experience knowing that you won’t have to jump it before your next trip. The ignition is known as “points” and many review that it does its job fairly well. The Honda CD185 has many highlights that are just unseen even with today’s standards. But, that fact makes it clear that the Honda CD185 is a bike to keep your eyes peeled for.

The battery needed for Honda CD185 is a 6N12A-2D. The Honda CD175 have cables to operate the clutch and front brakes. It also has a manual cable operated choke. The Honda CD185 uses a 34 tooth rear sprocket and a 15 tooth front sprocket. The chain is a 428,112 link chain. Replacing the ignition switch can be a little tricky. Depending on the year of motorbike you need to check if it needs a 4 wire ignition switch or a 6 wire ignition switch. If you are looking the change the mirrors any 10mm thread mirrors would do the job. Lastly the spark plugs needed for the Honda CD185 are CR7HS and you will need two of these plugs.

Functions of Minerals

When reading of nutrition and health, minerals and trace elements are often mentioned. We respond by eating lots of fruits and veggies, and maybe a vitamin supplement. We never doubt the validity of needing these things with names from the periodic table, but have you ever stopped and wondered what exactly it is they do for us? Or for that matter what are they and where do they naturally occur? Well you can stop lying awake nights, wondering about this!! Processed food cannot provide the services in the following list:

CALCIUM: Critical for many biological functions, including nerve   transmission , fat and protein digestion, muscle contraction, healthy teeth and bones, blood clotting, nerve functions, and more.

SODIUM: Muscle contraction, fluid balance, cell life and potential, and numerous other functions.

POTASIUM: Bone formation, fluid balance, blood pressure, muscle contraction, and many more functions.

PHOSPHORUS: Bone formation, assistance in the breakdown of fats, protein and carbohydrates.

MAGNESIUM: Muscle contraction, nerve  transmission , calcium metabolism, enzyme cofactor–ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL TO ALL KNOWN FORMS OF LIFE.

BORON: Calcium metabolism–an inadequate level of boron is also suspected in negatively influencing the body’s uptake of magnesium and calcium, possibly resulting in bone density loss and elevated blood pressure.

CHLORINE: Digestion, blood pressure.

COBALT: Essential for formation of vitamin B12, metabolism of fatty acids, and synthesis of hemoglobin.

SULPHUR: Protien synthesis, collagen cross linking, and ligament structure.

COPPER: Immune system, artery strength, helps form hemoglobin from iron and assist in metabolizing vitamin C and the oxidation of fatty acids.

CHROMIUM: Insulin action, cardiovascular health, glucose tolerance factor.

IRON: Blood formation, immune function.

SELENIUM: Immune stimulant, certain brain functions, acts as antioxidant. NICKEL: Immune regulation, brain development, and DNA synthesis.

IODINE: Thyroid functions, aids in upkeep of immune system.

MOLYBDEMUM: Enzyme action.

SILICON: Enzyme action, connective tissue.

TIN: Enzyme action

MANGANESE: Bone development and growth, metabolism of fat and energy, reproductive systems.

ZINC: Enzymatic reactions, reproductive health, growth and development, immune functions.

Diflucan Yeast Infection

Yeast is a type of fungus that may be present normally over the skin. The specific type of yeast that causes many a diseases in human is Candida albicans. This is a normal flora, mainly showing their presence in the moist areas of human skin like armpits, mouth, groin, sexual organs (both in male and female) and fold of the buttocks. It is seen that 20-50% of any normal healthy female carry yeast in their vaginal area.

Candidiasis, or yeast infection can be localized to the skin or there may be severe systemic infection in patients having reduced immunity. These patients usually suffer from AIDS, cancer or cancer patients receiving chemotherapy drugs.

It is estimated that almost 75% of the female population will suffer from vaginal yeast infection at any point of their lifetime. This is again aggravated by previous or secondary bacterial infection like Gonorrhea and protozoal infection like Trichomonas. Some external irritants like vaginal douches or the internal hormonal disturbances derange the normal vaginal flora and there is excess production of the acid producing bacteria like lactobacilli. Regular intake of oral pills, pregnancy, stress, vaginal sex immediately after anal sex and private part lubricants containing glycerin are some predisposing factors of vaginal yeast infection.

Men can also suffer from genital yeast infection. The causes are unclean prepuce, engaging in excessive anal sex and not cleaning after that.

Oral candidiasis can occur in immunocompromized patients. This may also transmit to any person if engaged in oral sex with the infected partner. Long standing diabetes is one of the most contributory factors of oral yeast infection.

Use of antibiotics and steroids (which lowers the immunity) is the two most common causes of yeast infection of mouth cavity and private parts due to indiscriminate use by the doctors and also by the quacks. To kill this offending fungus we need some medicine called antifungal agents. Diflucan is one of them.

Diflucan, or scientifically known as Fluconazole, is an imidazole related antifungal agent which shows primary a fungistatic (inhibiting the growth of fungus) action. But in higher concentrations, Diflucan can also acts as a fungicidal agent (killing fungus). It helps to destroy the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus and the fungal growth is retarded.

Bioavailability of Diflucan is not affected by presence of food in stomach. After absorption, it promptly shows its presence in skin, tears and urine. The concentration here are at least 10 times more that in sputum, saliva and vaginal fluid. This delineates the excretory process of Diflucan through urine and sweat. This is the reason Diflucan is preferred by doctors treating the cases of skin and vaginal yeast infection.

Patients having irregular heart rate and liver diseases must not take Diflucan as there may be aggravation of the problem. Although Diflucan is well tolerated generally, people can suffer from nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea infrequently.

The major complications of Diflucan are reduced urine output, ulcerative condition of the lips and gums (Steven-Johnson’s Syndrome). Presence of Diflucan is noted in the breast milk, so nursing mothers should not take this medicine. Diflucan can lead to fetal malformations, therefore the pregnant mothers and those who are planning to have a baby in near future should avoid using Diflucan.

Diflucan is a good medicine in Yeast infection but the side effects are the restrictive factors for the wide use of this drug.

Green Lasers

Lasers that lie in the green spectral region with a wavelength of 510 to 570 nanometers are termed as green lasers. Green laser technology is used in laser pointers, laser projection displays, interferometers, and for pumping of solid-state lasers such as Ti-sapphire lasers. It is also used in processing different types of materials such as copper, gold, or silicon as they have a much higher absorption coefficient as compared to near-infrared lasers.

Green laser usage and performance is limited, as it has a low spectrum range for selecting a laser gain media. However, they are the most commonly used visible lasers due to their uniqueness.

The most common lasers include Argon-ion lasers that are created with the amplification of light in argon plasma formed with an electrical discharge. They are potent light sources for various wavelengths and can achieve highest amount of power at 514 nanometers. Green lasers can easily exceed these limits, but will have to use many kilowatts of electrical power and the corresponding increase in dimensions of cooling systems will be significant. Small air-cooled tubes are used in green lasers that require hundreds of watts of electrical power for generating green laser beams of 10 mille-watts capacity. The tubes are very expensive and have a limited operational life of around a few thousand hours.

Another type of green laser is the Erbium-doped up-conversion laser based on erbium-doped fibers or bulk crystals that can emit around a 550-nanometer good quality laser beam. Frequency-doubled is another technique of creating green laser, in which a frequency doubler is used to convert radiation emitted by a normal laser into green laser. This technique is however very costly and is used only for conducting research work.

Research scientists are working on a number of projects for developing a mechanism that will enable the   transmission  of electronic data via green lasers. This mechanism, if successfully developed at affordable costs, will change the way people communicate with each other.

Genital Wart Facts

Genital warts are a type of wart that are only found on your private parts of the body. The genital wart is one that will be easily recognized. Genital warts are also known as veneral warts and also as condylmata acuminata. Warts in this manner are caused by a skin infection, which is known as PHV infection. It is possible to have the HPV infection without having genital warts. Genital warts are often passed along during sexual intercourse, but not all those who have genital warts are going to know they are infected until the warts are bigger and a little more painful.

Warts are a virus, that can be passed by touching, sitting and skin to skin contact. The most common types of warts are seen on people’s hands and feet, which are a different form of a wart but are generally the same thing if you are wondering what genital warts really are.

Warts are associated with the tumors that form under and in the skin. The tumors are forms of the HPV infection, and will form warts as the body rids the infection from the body. If you have warts on the hand or on the feet, you are not going to spread this to your genitals. If you know someone who has genital warts, they are not going to give you warts on your hands and the same goes the other way around.

For the woman, if you have genital warts, they will appear on the inside and the outside of the vagina. If the woman has anal sex, the genital warts could appear an the anus, and the same is for the man. If a man is having anal sex with another, the genital warts could appear on the anus area as well.

The warts will appear in the same area, taking a long time to spread out. Sometimes the warts will disappear on their own, but only in rare cases often times the genital warts will spread becoming crusty and become large areas of warts over the private areas of a male or female. If you have genital warts, and someone performs oral sex, the genital warts can be transmitted to that person. Genital warts can be treated by a doctor, and with medications. If not treated, often times genital warts can become troublesome not only for the person suffering with them, but for people you love and want to share that special relationship with.

If you have sex with someone that you later finds out has genital warts, you most likely are going to end up with genital warts are well. It can take any where from one month to three months for genital warts to appear and become large enough for a person to notice them. Always protect yourself by avoiding having sex with anyone you don’t know or trust not to have genital warts.

You can find more info about genital warts on


Learn How to Drive Online – Learn to Drive Easily

Learning to drive is not the easiest thing to do, especially if you are a young person. Whether you are young or a little older and trying to get your license, you need to be aware that it is possible to learn how to drive online.

The internet is a very powerful tool and just about anything can be learned on it very easily. Driving is no exception. While formal drivers education classes are certainly needed and highly recommended, there are resources online that can help you learn just as much or even more than you would from a regular in-person class.

The best product that I have ever come across to help people learn how to drive online is a video education course called Get Ready To Pass. I have done an in depth review of it and found it to be extremely effective.

The reason why I liked this product so much is because it gives the user all the tools that are needed to succeed and pass the road driving test the very first time. About half of people who attempt their road test fail on their first try. I know this because I was one of them!

I could have really used the resources given by this online drivers education website and helped myself be more prepared. It would have certainly been worth sparing the embarrassment I felt having to tell my friends that I could not drive good enough to pass.

In closing, it is totally possible to learn how to drive online if you want to. I recommend an online course that includes videos and has a solid customer base of people whom it has worked for. I know that I definitely could have used the help!