Basic Infection Control refers to measures designed to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious microorganisms to health personnel, clients and visitor. Various infection control measures are used to decrease the risk of transmission of microorganisms in hospitals.
Principles of Basic Infection Control
1. Microorganism move through space on air currents. Avoid shaking or tossing linens as these motions create currents on which these microorganisms can be transported. All isolation room doors should be closed to stop air currents.
2. Microorganisms are transferred from one surface to another whenever objects touch. When a clean item touches a less clean item, it becomes “dirty” because microorganisms are transferred to it. Keep your hands away from your hair and face. Keep linens away from your uniform. Always keep clean items separated from dirty ones, any object dropped to the floor is considered dirty.
3. Microorganisms are released into the air on droplet nuclei, whenever a person breathes or speaks. Coughing and sneezing dramatically increases the number of microorganisms released from the mouth and nose. Cover mouth when coughing and sneezing. Wash hands thoroughly.
4. Microorganisms are transferred by gravity when one item is held above another. Avoid passing dirty items over clean items or areas because it is possible for the microorganisms to drop off into a clean item or area. When storing items in a bedside stand, place a clean items on upper shelves and potentially dirty items such as bedpans on lower shelves.
5. Microorganisms move slowly on dry surfaces but very quickly through moisture. Use dry paper towel when you turn off faucets. Dry both basin before placing on bed side for storage.
6. Proper hand washing removes many of the microorganisms that would be transferred by the hands from one item to another.
1. Wear clean examination gloves for listed body fluids: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, etc.
2. Wash hands:
- a. Immediately after contact with body substances containing blood
- b. Between patient care
- c. Immediately after gloves are removed.
3. Wear masks and protective eyewear when appropriate.
4. Wear moisture-proof apron when appropriate.
5. Wear utility (household rubber) gloves appropriately
6. Dispose of equipment and secretions properly
7. Wear sterile gloves appropriately
8. Handle specimens of blood and listed body fluids appropriately
9. Handle soiled linens correctly:
a. Hold linen away from uniform
b. Do not shake or toss linen
c. Transport linen contaminated with blood or bloody fluids in leakage resistant proof bags.